|Posted by Sam Valentine on July 31, 2016 at 4:20 PM||comments (0)|
Images: Ken Dodds, Hoot Nonny, and Frank Vincentz
They can be found in a diversity of shapes and sizes. They are a familiar piece of American Southern vernacular, and yet there seems to be no consensus on what exactly to call them: wall washer, star anchor, stress washer, anchor plate, and Charleston bolt are a few of the many names that one might hear.
Image: The Post and Courier Archives
While most would file these iron bits under "rustic decor," there is a noteworthy functional difference between a "star anchor" and a purely ornamental "barn star". These anchors have been used for centuries as a means to reinforce buildings around the world against settlement and collapse, but they burst into popularity in the American Southeast 130 years ago when Charleston, South Carolina was struck with a devastating earthquake. Reading descriptions of the 1886 earthquake, a geologically rare but particularly damaging event, is truly shocking, but it explains why these "earthquake bolts" are so commonly seen along Charleston's historic streets today.
Images: Paige Henderson, Marie Beschen, Grover Schrayer, and Ken Dodds
Both authentic anchors and replicas are ubiquitous in Southern antique shops and in the online marketplace, and working these into your garden can inject a bit of borrowed character. If your garden calls for something more unique than the generic star pattern, architectural historians have catalogued a range of Charleston bolts from which to draw inspiration.
Image: R. G. Lubischer
|Posted by Sam Valentine on January 23, 2014 at 7:25 PM||comments (0)|
Images: Scott MacLeod Liddle, Thomas Roland, and Joanne Richardson
ὁ δὲ ἀνεξέταστος βίος οὐ βιωτὸς ἀνθρώπῳ
It was 2,400 years ago that Socrates is said to have taught the above words, and though you may not be any more up on your Greek than I am, the meaning of his words still translate into truth today. "The unexamined life is not worth living for a human being," or -- to reframe it in a slightly kinder light -- "Life is more enjoyable when we carefully consider the details."
Masonry is a universal construction technique used to build everything from shelters to garden walls to horizontal pavements. Masonry "units" can vary widely to include stone, brick, concrete block, glass block, tile, and even timber, but what unites all masonry structures (literally) is mortar.
Images: Don Shall, Je Kemp, Theilr, and Rachel Towne
The most common mortars, at least since Socrates' time, consist of three basic ingredients. Sand, the main ingredient, is inert on its own, but when it is mixed with cement and water, the ingredients react to form a paste-like binding mixture that can be applied to brick, stone, and other rigid surfaces. Mortar hardens to a rock-hard state after it is applied, and by laying it between masonry units, it serves to "glue" the structure together, evenly distribute the structural load, and create weather-tight joints.
Images: Lucidio Studio, Maryland Architecture, Planning & Preservation, and Rich Bettridge
Many of the ways in which masonry garden walls can vary are obvious. Even beyond the different masonry units that can be selected and the colors that are inherent to these materials, wall surfaces can take on a variety of forms and alignments. Beyond these more noticeable design decisions, however, is the fine-grain design of the mortar joints. Jointing is one aspect of masonry that is often the last design element to be considered -- if it is considered at all.
Even with the identical structural and weatherproofing considerations satisfied, there is a surprising palette of mortar joint profiles, each with its own aesthetic and historic associations. Joint lines may seem like a trivial detail to some, but considering the design "between the lines" can bring a level of richness and refinement to your landscape that cannot be found in most built environments. From flush to concave and beaded to raked, envisioning the most appropriate jointing for a garden masonry structure is an opportunity that is best not neglected. After all, sometimes the unexamined garden is not worth visiting.
Image: Simon Bisson
|Posted by Sam Valentine on August 15, 2013 at 7:40 PM||comments (0)|
Image: Ádám Zoltán
It doesn't have to be this way.
The balcony, named in the 1600's by the Italians and, in one form or another, likely invented whenever mankind built their first two-story buildings, is by definition a piece of architecture. It is a truly novel idea, a structure that manages to extend an interior room, offer secure, sheltered access to the outdoors, and provide an elevated platform for viewing one's surroundings. In color, form, and style, balconies -- as architectural elements -- can create interesting rhythms and engaging compositions.
Images: Gerry Balding, Chas Eastwood, and Dorris D.
While everything I have just stated is true, it seems a little one-dimensional to characterize a balcony as only a piece of architecture. While a balcony space extends the building interior and is, quite literally, a part of the house, the structure also could not and would not exist without its strong relationship with landscape.
Whether it is overlooking a bustling urban street, a tropical ocean-front vista, or a more familiar suburban gardenscape, a balcony is as spatially and visually reliant on the surrounding landscape as it is structurally dependent on the building walls. As far as the designer is concerned, a balcony falls into a no man's land, or perhaps an everyman's land. The most successful balconies are created when architects and landscape designers recognize the space as both an architectural extension of the garden and a critical, attractive interface between indoors and out.
As a landscape designer who lived far too long in an apartment with only a couple square feet of wrought-iron fire escape to call my "outdoor realm," I want to be clear that the following comparisons intend no judgment. In a typical living situation, outdoor space is a luxury, and what appears to one person as clutter is, to another, just evidence of a utilized outdoor space. With all that said, I have grouped examples of balcony treatments into three main categories, as outlined below:
Images: Villa Afrikana, Jczii, and Daria Angeli
Some homeowners choose to keep their balconies neat, clear, and free of detritus. Advantages of keeping a "spartan" balcony include a sense of openness, the ability to move about freely, and the possibility of focusing visitors' attentions to the surrounding landscape.
Images: John Hugh Glen, Coralie Mercier, and Louise Best
On the absolute opposite end of the spectrum, there is cluttered or "maximized" balcony. These spaces are easily identified by the presence of overflowing container plantings with sprawling, jungle-like vegetation. In addition to seating, a balcony such as this may also be crowded with other uses, including laundry and household items, pet supplies, and children's toys. In many cases, these overflowing uses are symptomatic of an urban dweller. To some residents, the balcony must fulfill the purposes of an entire backyard.
As with most things in life, there is a middle way with balconies. An approach that is "balanced," one that weighs sensory interest and spatial freedom, is most likely to appeal to the average gardener and homeowner.
Images: Jorge Luis Zapico, Kenji Izumi, and BadAlley
Intentional arrangements of plantings, tidy but still verdant and alive, can bring life to the steel, wood, and concrete of a residential balcony. Softening and screening external views to harsh urban alleys and suburban roadways can be achieved with foliage just as effectively as in a full-scale garden. Pleasant vistas and borrowed views can be frames and emphasized with plant material, furniture, and small objets d'art.
Images: Paul Heneker and StreetLevel
Regardless of how busy or how sparse of a balcony a gardener keeps, what might be easily forgotten is the inevitable impact that a balcony treatment will have on the adjacent interior spaces. While the structure's inherent colors, forms, proportions, and size may be beyond the homeowner's (or apartment renter's) control, many other qualities of a balcony are able to be freely and creatively manipulated.
The miniature outdoor realm we refer to as "the balcony" is yours to reimagine, and there are a number of off-the-shelf products available, quite a few attractive precedents to look to for inspiration, and some truly experimental concepts in the works. With all of these ideas at your disposal, you should find few excuses to settle for a balcony -- even a small one -- that is boring, lifeless, or lacking your personal touch.
Image: Erik Hovmiller
|Posted by Sam Valentine on July 8, 2013 at 9:30 PM||comments (0)|
Image: Porky Hefer
To be honest, this all might seem a bit cuckoo. Actually, that might be a pretty appropriate word for it. Across the continents, there is a small but burgeoning movement to install manmade "nests" in backyards, woodlands, and at scenic vistas.
At first glance, these organic, woven-twig objets d'art seem aesthetically aligned with the earth-based sculpture of Patrick Dougherty and other artists; a reader may remember my description of an encounter with one of Dougherty's deceptively "natural" works at the Dumbarton Oaks Ellipse a few posts back. While there are undeniable structural similarities, these objects are more than just sculptures or architectural follies. What makes these "nests" unique is their specific intended function.
Images: Porky Hefer, Jayson Fann, and Drew Kelly for the New York Times
These manmade nests are designed to be inhabited. Often perched at or just beneath the forest canopy, these structures have been envisioned as naturalistic shelters for sleeping, meditation, and sanctuary. In the United States, it seems that Jayson Fann, based out of California's Big Sur Valley, is the pioneering guru of the moment, and his studio provides information about overnight lodging and sells custom-installed "Spirit Nests" for delivery to your garden. Even if a possible user sees no spiritual significance in sleeping as wildlife does, the prospect of retreating to and awakening in an environment consisting entirely of organic forms, materials, and geometries should be universally enticing.
Images: Jayson Fann and Liz G.
It was a New York Times article, "Twigitecture," and its accompanying photo slideshow that first exposed me to these human nests, and since seeing the piece a few weeks back, I have found the concept to be creative, strange, and not quickly forgotten. As far as reconnecting with nature goes, it seems that a night one of these nests would put conventional tent camping to shame. With no synthetic screening, fabric, or zippers between the inhabitant and the outdoors, a man or woman could find the ultimate (though temporary) escape from the artificial, and sometimes wearisome, environments that civilization has created.
Image: Drew Kelly for the New York Times
|Posted by Sam Valentine on May 12, 2013 at 11:35 AM||comments (1)|
In my last post, I promised that there were more reflections on Dumbarton Oaks to come, and here I am fulfilling that prediction. As I discussed in the last article, the estate gardens are richly programmed with outdoor spaces varying in formality, style, and ornamentation, but they are all matched in their elegance. Landscape rooms such as the Star Garden, the Rose Garden, and the much photographed Pebble Garden, with their richness of detail and beautiful colors and forms, often steal a visitor's eyes, but it is another of Dumbarton's gardens that most impresses me.
Images: Sam Valentine
To be honest, I knew what to expect even before I arrived. Shortly before my first visit half a decade ago, one of my professors, Joseph Disponzio, had lectured quite passionately about a carefully orchestrated progression across a series of lawn terraces at Dumbarton Oaks. Last month, during my second visit, I found myself just as captivated with the terrace progression as I had been on my first, and I realized that the enthusiasm with which Professor Disponzio led us through slides in a darkened lecture hall was absolutely justified.
Graphic: Sam Valentine
The North Vista is a defined outdoor room that connects the massive main house to the gardens and the "wilderness" beyond them. (Though some areas of the landscape appear to be natural woodlands, I place "wilderness" in quotation marks because even Dumbarton Oaks' wildest areas have still been designed and maintained to some degree.) The connection is established along a series of stepping lawns, and this openness allows for dramatic and unobstructed views from house to forest.
With each change in level, the language of the terraces and landscape gracefully and subtly changes. The southernmost terrace, partially enclosed by the house itself, is bound by brick walls, includes a large amount of ornamental ironwork, and is liberally adorned with intricate carved stone elements. Stepping down and away from the house and to the north, the language of wrought iron and carved stone dissipates, and the garden's architecture consists only of simple brick walls, with intermittent areas of vine coverage.
Images: Sam Valentine
The pair of images above shows the different stair treatments found at the thresholds between the highest terrace and the ones that follow it. Closer to the house, the upper terrace is delineated with a brick knee wall and carved stone balustrades, and the stairs are edged with an ornate, ascending volute. The second and third terrace thresholds are much simpler, and their stairs are edged with a less flamboyant style of brickwork and a stumpy, low-profile brick newel. There is a consistent, perceptible transitioning in both ornamentation and structure, and this progression is terminated by perforated stone walls and climbing wisteria that enframes the lowest terrace.
As with many historic landscapes, it seems that the creation of the North Vista was something of a collaborative design effort through time, and it seems a bit unjust to solely credit Beatrix Farrand for the experience a visitor may have today. A bit of research indicates that Farrand and her client, Mildred Bliss, were responsible for the major strokes, but significant planting revisions and ornamental embellishments were made after her work ended.
As you walk southward, slowly climbing the terraces and nearing the house -- which is the route that I would recommend upon your first (or next) visit -- it is easy to find yourself impressed by the carefully executed progression I am discussing, the rare craftsmanship of the walls and steps, and the cohesiveness of the entire landscape. But you should know that there is one more trick in store. As you move toward the house, your view (as shown below), will be a rhythmic series of brick and carved-stone terraces, gently carrying you over its tiered lawns and up to the brick and carved-stone house.
Image: Sam Valentine
When a visitor reaches the house's steps though, and takes a look back over the same central axis that he or she has just explored, something magical happens. As one takes in the 'North Vista' for which this landscape is named, the rhythmic brick steps disappear entirely. In their place, there is a soft, seemingly unbroken swath of lawn that gracefully draws the eye towards the distant, northern wilderness.
Image: Sam Valentine
|Posted by Stuart DiNenno on November 17, 2012 at 4:30 PM||comments (0)|
Masonry, by its most universal definition, is a method of building that involves assembling individual units and binding them together with some type of mortar. A brick chimney. A tile floor. An ancient stone wall. It is not hard for anyone to call to mind several examples of masonry construction.
Images: Esparta Palma, Elliot Brown, and Kavjin
For good reason, the materials that are traditionally selected to serve as masonry “units” match the mortar in terms of durability and organic content. Whether they are chunks of rock, ceramic pieces, or sun-dried clay bricks, the most desirable building blocks are inorganic so they will not rot and mineral-based so they can stand up to the elements.
Mankind, though, is not always blessed with the ideal resources for such construction techniques. Sometimes we simply have to work with what we’ve got.
Image: Syzygy Salvage
Cordwood masonry has gone by countless names, including log-butt, stackwall, stovewood, and even “Depression building” construction, but its penurious nature leads me to believe that this mode of building was more often than not employed without a formal name. Cordwood masonry sprang from basic necessity in places where humans needed to build shelter, had a decent supply of mortar, but lacked a resource for inorganic building blocks. Rather than use brick or stone, cordwood builders use short logs – much like what you would put into a crackling fire – between the mortar joints. Some believe that the earliest instances of this building method were born in the 19th century in central Wisconsin, where ancient glacial movement had left generous deposits of limestone (the first ingredient of lime putty mortar) but little more than cedar forests for masonry units.
Images: Paul Comstock and Akkodra
In more recent decades, cordwood construction has seen something of a revival. Celebrated for its earthy aesthetic, its flexibility of form, and its moments of unparalleled, beautiful detailing, cordwood masonry has been brought into a modest renaissance by Rob and Jaki Roy, who have centered the movement from Earthwood, their Upstate New York property. As of July 2012, there were an estimated 1,500 existing cordwood homes (with more than 200 more under construction) in North America alone. The Roys and others offer regular workshops, books, and videos to promote this unique architectural style.
While not everyone might jump at the chance to live in such a rustic, unconventional structure as a cordwood house, gardeners everywhere should consider incorporating cordwood masonry techniques into their landscape projects. The materials are inexpensive and readily available, the techniques are easy to master, and in the mediums of wood, glass bottles, and mortar, a gardener’s creativity can truly thrive.
Images: Paul Comstock and Tony Cenicola/The New York Times
Author: Sam Valentine, BLA, LEED AP
|Posted by Stuart DiNenno on July 12, 2012 at 12:05 AM||comments (1)|
This post is the third in a series of three articles that examines Fallingwater, a work of residential architecture and landscape design by Frank Lloyd Wright.
They say that a picture is worth a thousand words.
Image: Patrick Gage Kelley
I would argue that, if looking at a still image is indeed capable of conveying so much meaning, then visiting a built environment is worth at least a million words.
While visiting Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania a few summers ago, my family and I were able to take a daytrip to experience Fallingwater for ourselves. As we crept away from the city, the traffic, and the highways we found ourselves increasingly immersed in land of wild, mountainous forests. Amidst these venerable natural surroundings, I stepped out of the car at Fallingwater, and found a designed environment of richness and sanctity that no words, images, or films had ever been able to convey to me. In short, I found much more than I was expecting, and I was expecting quite a bit.
Image: Sam Valentine
After a short walk, I was standing downstream from the house, perched at the “overlook” that provides the most consummate (and probably most repeatedly photographed) vista of Fallingwater. The view is simply breathtaking, and it stirred within me a feeling reminiscent of a puzzle piece snapping into place. To grasp the design genius of the building one must see the composition of cantilevered planes jutting out over the native stone ledges and hear Bear Run rush under the house and over the falls. This single vantage allowed me to do both simultaneously.
The view from the overlook is certainly something to remember, but for me, it is Fallingwater’s smaller details that are most impressive.
Images: Via Tsuji, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, and Sam Valentine
It is in its intricacies, the types of finer details that most homebuilders cannot make time to carefully address, that Fallingwater had the strongest impression on me. Thanks to Edgar Kaufmann’s seemingly bottomless pockets, Frank Lloyd Wright and his team of designers had the liberty to intently consider and custom-fabricate everything from window mechanisms to light-switch coverplates.
Images: picturethecity and Via Tsuji
Every aspect of Fallingwater is the product of inspiration, invention, and careful implementation, and with so many levels of design, it is necessary to visit the building to comprehend its genius. Several architectural features demonstrate a fulfillment of Wright’s organic vision, and while many of Wright’s earlier works employed a continuity between the natural exterior environment and the interior living spaces, at Fallingwater it is sometimes hard to determine exactly where the home ends and the rocky, woodland landscape begins.
Images: Sam Valentine
If you have never seen it with your own eyes, put “visit Fallingwater” on your bucket list. If you value design, nature, and architecture, I feel that it is imperative to experience the work before the end of your life. But honestly, I would not wait until then. Make a trip to Western Pennsylvania before you begin your next remodeling, building, or gardening project. You will leave Fallingwater with information, inspiration, and a heightened awareness of the possibilities of designing with nature.
Author: Sam Valentine, BLA, LEED AP
|Posted by Stuart DiNenno on June 28, 2012 at 8:20 PM||comments (0)|
This post is the second in a series of three articles that examines Fallingwater, a work of residential architecture and landscape design by Frank Lloyd Wright.
When discussing the life of any historical figure, the individual’s experiences, by necessity, are abridged, condensed, and often tidied up. Though Frank Lloyd Wright’s life is generally streamlined by those discussing his body of architectural work, it should be understood that at the time Edgar J. Kaufmann commissioned Wright to build his family’s home, the architect had already lived a long and quite complicated life. At the time his office started work on Fallingwater in 1934, Wright already had nearly fifty years of architecture under his belt, was married to his third wife, had abandoned one of his families, had lost loved ones to an axe murderer, and had already published the first edition of his autobiography.
Decades earlier, furthering the principles and methods of the international Arts and Crafts Movement, Wright had built his career by helping to establish the Prairie School, a horizontally dominant architectural style that borrowed influence from the flat, treeless landscapes of the Midwestern United States. At Fallingwater, Wright and his firm would implement details that can certainly be associated with the Prairie School, but Fallingwater is one of Wright’s works that signals not so much an abandonment but a graduation from the Prairie Style. At this point in his career, one of Wright’s underlying tenets was that a work of architecture should be harmonious with nature, should take hints and inspiration from the landscape, and should be thought of – along with its surroundings – as part of a unified composition.
Like any client hoping to build a home near an attractive natural feature, Kaufmann wanted his new house to capture views of the Bear Run falls. We can assume that the client was expecting the house to be situated in such a way that it would overlook the waterfall, and that perhaps his family might even be able to hear the distant sound of rushing water. After paying a visit to Wright’s studio, though, Kaufmann looked over the plans and realized that the architect had something else in mind entirely.
Image courtesy of Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Archives
“I thought you would place the house near the waterfall, not over it,” Mr. Kaufmann said with surprise. Quietly, Wright replied, “E. J., I want you to live with the waterfall, not just to look at it, but for it to become an integral part of your lives.”
Today, Fallingwater stands as a testament to Wright’s organic design philosophy, his pioneering construction principles, and his office’s unparalleled attention to detail. In its broad strokes, the building is a series of concrete cantilevers, anchored into the face of a stone ledge and bravely protruding over the natural stone tiers of the Bear Run falls. In the finer details, it is a treasure trove of custom-crafted ornamentation and furnishings that, among other influences, borrows inspiration from both the Arts and Crafts Movement and Japanese building traditions.
Image:( Dennis Crews
When viewed singly, the various pieces that make up Fallingwater are beautiful and admirable, but Fallingwater is much more than the sum of its parts. Studied as a unified composition, it is a true masterpiece. Only a year after it was completed, Fallingwater joined Wright on the cover of Time Magazine, and to this day it is still one of the world’s most recognizable and beloved works of American architecture.
Author: Sam Valentine, BLA, LEED AP
|Posted by Stuart DiNenno on June 21, 2012 at 7:55 AM||comments (0)|
This post is the first in a series of three articles that examines Fallingwater, a work of residential architecture and landscape design by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Image: Wally Gobetz
In 1909, Edgar J. Kaufmann took his first walk along a landscape of wooded slopes in Western Pennsylvania’s Allegheny Mountains, and he caught his earliest glimpse of a breathtaking waterfall on Bear Run. At the time, Kaufmann was a prominent department store proprietor who lived about seventy miles away in Pittsburgh, but over the next few decades, this rural, picturesque site would come to play an increasingly significant role in his life. The landscape’s serene beauty and rushing waters would serve to enhance both his business relationships and the life of his growing family.
It is clear that the scenery and sense of sanctuary that Kaufmann discovered upon his first visit to this woodland landscape was not soon forgotten; twenty years later he purchased 1,600 acres of the property, with the Bear Run waterfall at its heart. He then set out creating something of fresh-air retreat, inviting others to join him in escaping the inhospitable conditions of a booming, industrial city. Visitors to the landscape, mostly Kaufmann’s employees and family members, slept in a hodgepodge of cabins throughout the landscape, and they enjoyed such recreational activities as “tennis, swimming, volleyball, hayrides, picnicking, sunbathing, theater, singing, and ‘quiet’ reading.”
Images courtesy of the Minerd-Miner Family Archives
As another decade passed, Kaufmann decided that he wanted his family to grow even closer to the site. Seeking more than the primitive, temporary cabins that had made up his summer camp, he imagined building a permanent structure for his family on the landscape. He wanted a home built that would overlook the Bear Run falls, and with the help of his extensive family wealth, Kaufmann was able to seek out the services of the most high-profile architect of his time. In December of 1934, Kaufmann hired Frank Lloyd Wright.
Image courtesy of Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation
Author: Sam Valentine, BLA, LEED AP